Completed genome sequencing of soybean aphids will lead to new management strategies moving forward

first_imgShare Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest Soybean aphids were first discovered in Wisconsin in 2001. Since then, the crop pest has become well established throughout the northern Midwest and the provinces of Ontario and Quebec in Canada. On numerous occasions the soybean aphid has caused very significant economic damage in Ohio.The tiny pests inflict crop damage due to their potentially suffocating numbers. They can have as many as 12 generations a year and when the populations get large enough, the normally wingless aphids give birth to a winged generation that can spread far distances on the wind, according to Ohio State University Extension.Because of the potential for ongoing problems from this yield robber in the future, there have been significant funding efforts from the North Central Soybean Research Program, USDA-National Institute of Food and Agriculture and the Center for Applied Plant Sciences at Ohio State University and the Ohio Soybean Council for a broad array of management techniques addressing soybean aphids. One management strategy has been to develop soybean varieties that are resistant to soybean aphids.“The checkoff in Ohio as well as the North Central region states have put in a lot of investment in developing soybean plants that are resistant to the aphids, but now we have aphids that have overcome that resistance,” said Andy Michel, field crops entomologist at Ohio State University. “The aphids remain an important pest of soybeans in Ohio and with reports of insecticide resistance, they may become an even more important pest.”To address this challenge, researchers took on the extensive process of sequencing the entire soybean aphid genome to help develop strategies that prevent the spread and increase of aphids capable of breaking aphid resistance. Michel led the effort.“My laboratory at Ohio State focuses on understanding how soybean aphids are able to overcome aphid resistance in soybean. Through this research, we hope to develop strategies that prevent the spread and increase of aphids capable of breaking aphid resistance. In the course of generating DNA sequences…we were able to sequence the entire soybean aphid genome,” he said. “We now have a really good roadmap for the soybean aphid and understanding all of the genes that are involved that make the aphid such a bad pest for soybean farmers in the north central region.”The soybean aphid is now the fourth aphid species with a completely described genome and this new information will be a valuable tool moving forward with soybean aphid management.“It will further advance our ability to identify soybean aphid genes responsible for overcoming resistant soybean, and hopefully lead to a wider use of resistant soybeans,” Michel said. “In addition, as reports of insecticide resistance emerge from colleagues at Minnesota and Iowa, the genome will provide targets to understand resistance and potentially develop markers to monitor the frequency of insecticide-resistant aphids.”The genome was constructed from soybean aphids collected across the north central United States by collaborators participating in the soybean aphid research group led by Kelley Tilmon at Ohio State University.“Part of the issue with the aphid is that they are very tiny and they have a very tiny genome. That allowed us to really quickly sequence all of the base pairs in the aphid genome. It took about two or three years to sequence the entire genome and now that we have that library of what the genome is, it should not take us long to figure out what the genes are and better understand the genetic makeup of the aphid that allowed it to become such a pest,” Michel said. “The ultimate goal is really to understand how these aphids are able to overcome resistant plants. By understanding the genes involved we can better target management strategies and use better varieties. Now we are comparing genomes of resistant aphids and non-resistant aphids. What DNA does the resistant aphid have that the other aphid does not?”This work has been accepted in the journal Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, and is currently available online: Whole genome sequence of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines. For a reference for soybean aphid management in the North Central region see the NCSRP Soybean Aphid Field Guide.last_img read more

2 soldiers killed in Pampore, militant gunned down near LoC

first_imgTwo soldiers and a Jaish-e-Muhammad (JeM) militant were killed in a gunfight at Pampore that started on November 2 evening and continued late in the night. Meanwhile, one militant was killed in Kupwara on November 3.A police spokesman said JeM’s Badar was killed at Samboora village of Pampore where a residential area was under cordoned off till November 2 night. “Badar was involved in a number of militant acts in south Kashmir,” police said. Sources said two more militants managed to escape from the encounter site “while opening indiscriminate fire at the security personnel”, which left two soldiers dead.The deceased soldiers were identified as Sepoy Suraj Singh Topal, 25, and Sigmn Kushwah Pradip Singh Brijkishor Singh, 22. The bodies were flown to their hometowns for last rites .In Pulwama, a shutdown was observed on November 3 after the encounter. There were sporadic clashes between security forces and protesters. Train service also remained suspended. Infiltration bid foiled, militant killedAn Army spokesman said one militant was killed after an infiltration bid was foiled by the soldiers Kupwara’s Machil Sector near the Line of Control (LoC) on November 3. “The weapon was also recovered from the militant’s body,” said Defence spokesman Lt. Colonel Rajesh Kalia. “The operation is on in the area.”last_img read more

Dont impose Hindi common language not possible in India says Rajinikanth

first_imgChennai: Veteran actor Rajinikanth on Wednesday said the concept of a common language in India was “unfortunately” not possible and asserted any attempts of Hindi imposition would be not only resisted by southern states, but even many in the north.The actor’s remarks came in response to Union Home Minister Amit Shah’s recent pitch for Hindi as a common language, which drew sharp reactions from various south Indian leaders including DMK President MK Stalin and Congress leader and former Karnataka Chief Minister Siddaramaiah. Also Read – Uddhav bats for ‘Sena CM’The superstar said Hindi should not be imposed, as the concept of a common language was “unfortunately” not possible in the country. “A common language not just for India but any country is good for its unity and progress. Unfortunately, (one cannot) bring a common language in our country. So you cannot impose any language,” he told reporters at the airport here. “Especially, if you impose Hindi, not just Tamil Nadu, no southern state will accept that. Many states in northern parts will also not accept that,” Rajinikanth, who has announced that he will enter politics ahead of the next Assembly polls (2021), said. Also Read – Farooq demands unconditional release of all detainees in J&KOn Saturday, Shah had pitched for a common language for the country and said it is Hindi which is spoken the most and that it can unite the whole nation. The home minister had also said efforts would be made to expand Hindi to different parts of the country and asked everyone to use their native languages as much as possible. “India has many languages and every language has its importance. But it is absolutely necessary that the entire country should have one language that becomes India’s identity globally,” he had said. The remarks had drawn widespread criticism, especially in Tamil Nadu, with the BJP’s ally, the ruling AIADMK saying there will be only “adverse reaction” if Hindi is imposed in the state. The DMK, whose leader MK Stalin had dubbed Shah’s statement as “shocking,” has announced a state-wide stir on Friday against Shah’s Hindi pitch. Incidentally, Karnataka Chief Minister and BJP veteran B S Yediyurappa had asserted Kannada was the principal language in his state and that its importance would never be compromised. While all official languages in the country were equal, Kannada was the principal language in Karnataka and there will be no compromise with its importance, he had said. Rajinikanth’s contemporary and Makkal Needhi Maiam founder-president Kamal Haasan had warned of a bigger protest in the state than the pro-jallikattu agitation in 2017 against any attempts of Hindi imposition.last_img read more

Govt to appoint global consultant to sell surplus land of PSUs

first_imgMumbai: The government wants to sell excess land holdings held by state-run enterprises and will soon be appointing international consultants to help on the same, a senior official said on Thursday. The process, to be carried out by the Niti Aayog with the help of the Finance Ministry’s Department of Investment and Public Asset Management (DIPAM), will be a big source of revenue in the next two years. The government is at present on the look-out to tap newer sources of revenue as it tries to address the country’s developmental needs. It has also had to sharply cut taxes to spur investments and push up growth which has slipped to a six year low. Also Read – Commercial vehicle sales to remain subdued in current fiscal: Icra”We are in the process of appointing international consultants for the property (sale). They will be handling these transactions,” Dheeraj Bhatnagar, an additional secretary in DIPAM, said at the annual Capam event here. The list of excess land or non-crore holdings held by the enterprises will be collected first by the Niti Aayog in consultation with the administrative ministry under which the company falls, the DIPAM and also the state government under which the land falls. Once identified, the land parcels will be segregated into three categories – clear title, one with non-clarity and also facing hurdles like litigations. He said there are a lot of issues with titles because both the States and Centre had Congress governments and the lines blurred, wherein land held by a state government was cited as one held by a state-run company.last_img read more

India Brazil South Africa call for reforms at international fora including UN

first_imgUnited Nations: India along with other members of the IBSA bloc has reaffirmed its commitment to promote reforms in all international organisations, including the UN, World Trade Organisation and G20 to achieve more “inclusive, and responsive” international governance architecture. In a meeting of External Affairs Minister S Jaishankar, Brazil’s Foreign Minister Ernesto Araujo and South Africa’s Minister of International Relations and Cooperation Naledi Pandor held on Thursday on the sidelines of the 74th United Nations General Assembly here, they stressed that right to development and equality of opportunities are critical means to achieve such goals, the IBSA said in a joint statement. Also Read – India gets first tranche of Swiss account details under automatic exchange framework “Our countries continue to engage together as positive forces for change. The multilateral system needs to be reformed, so as to ensure that it works effectively for all states and peoples,” the statement said. The countries also expressed their commitment to promoting the reform of the multilateral system through cooperation and coordination in all relevant multilateral fora and international organisations including the WTO and groupings of G20, Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS), Brazil, South Africa, India and China (BASIC), and G-77, the statement said. Also Read – Trio win Nobel Medicine Prize for work on cells, oxygen At a time of significant and pressing global challenges, India, Brazil and South Africa acknowledge “our common objectives and shared responsibility to help build a peaceful, secure and prosperous world,” it said. MEA spokesperson Raveesh Kumar in a tweet, said, “promoting reform of the multilateral system. India, Brazil & South Africa together call for a more inclusive, responsive and participatory international governance architecture. The three countries also reaffirmed their commitment to enhance the voice and representation of emerging and developing economies, especially those in Africa, in the decision-making bodies of multilateral institutions. “As large democracies and vibrant nations, we believe that people should be placed at the centre of inclusive international governance. We are committed to reforming the multilateral system in order to meet the needs and expectations of our peoples, as well as to respond to increasing global challenges,” the statement said. They also expressed concern at the “slow pace” of inter-governmental negotiations on UN Security Council (UNSC) reform and reaffirmed their commitment to working together for the expansion of membership in both the permanent and non-permanent categories for achieving a more representative, inclusive and equitable UN Security Council. “The comprehensive reform of the United Nations (UN) system, including that of the UN Security Council, remains a crucial international undertaking,” it said. “With the onset of the 75th anniversary of the UN in 2020, we urge redoubling of efforts to achieve progress on this issue, with a view to an early comprehensive reform of the Security Council,” the statement said. They also stressed on the need for reform of the international economic governance architecture, including WTO and the international financial institutions. “IBSA countries have contributed meaningfully in making the international economic governance architecture more representative and democratic, and will continue to work together to advance an agenda that promotes sustainable development and inclusive growth,” the statement said. The process of WTO reform must keep development at its core, promote inclusiveness and non-discrimination, build trust and address the inequalities and asymmetries in existing agreements, it said. It should take into account the diversity of interests and concerns of the whole membership, including developing members, in particular least-developed countries (LDCs). IBSA countries recognise the central role played by the WTO in promoting the interests of developing countries on issues such as agriculture, it said. The IBSA nations noted that strengthening the global financial safety net, with a strong, quota-based, and adequately resourced International Monetary Fund (IMF) at its centre, is essential. “We must work towards concluding the 15th General Review of Quotas, including a new quota formula at the annual meetings of 2019,” it said. The three countries reiterated their commitment to working together on strengthening cooperation to prosecute persons sought for corruption and other economic crimes, including through international organisations and institutions such as the G20, the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) and others. “We underscore the need for continuing consultations and exchange of views between the IBSA countries in order to build partnerships in multilateral fora,” the statement said. They also took note of the progress made by the IBSA Fund for the Alleviation of Poverty and Hunger, which provides financial support for South-owned, South-led, demand-driven and transformational projects across the developing world, with a focus on Least Developed Countries. “We welcome the developmental impact created by the Fund on the ground,” the statement said.last_img read more